Singing May Be Good Medicine for Parkinson’s Patients

​Voice coaching appears to help swallowing and breathing, study finds.

Singing? To benefit people with Parkinson’s disease? It just may help, a researcher says.”We’re not trying to make them better singers, but to help them strengthen the muscles that control swallowing and respiratory function, said Elizabeth Stegemoller, an assistant professor of kinesiology at Iowa State University.

Singing uses the same muscles as swallowing and breathing control, two functions affected by Parkinson’s disease. Singing significantly improves the muscle activities. Other benefits noted by patients, their families and caregivers include improvements in mood, stress and depression.

Parkinson‘s disease is a chronic and progressive movement disorder. Nearly one million Americans live with the disease. The cause isn’t known, and there is no cure at present. But there are treatment options such as medication and surgery to manage symptoms, according to the Parkinson‘s Disease Foundation.

Symptoms can include tremors of the hands, arms, legs, jaw and face; slowness of movement; limb rigidity; and problems with balance and coordination.

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Major Risk Associated With Alzheimer’s Disease

Assessing Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

Families have many things in common, including their genes, environment, and lifestyle. Together, these things may offer clues to diseases, like late- and early-onset Alzheimer’s, that can run in a family.

Late-Onset Alzheimer’s

There is no test yet to predict if someone will get late-onset Alzheimer’s, in which symptoms become apparent in a person’s mid-60s. If someone is worried about changes in his or her memory or other problems with thinking, he or she should talk with a doctor.

A doctor may ask the patient to make a family health history. A family health history can help a person know if Alzheimer’s disease runs in the family. It lists health facts about a person and close relatives. It is a written record of:

  • A family’s health conditions
  • Lifestyle habits like smoking and exercise
  • Where and how family members grew up

A family health history can show patterns of disease and risk factors. Try to include health facts about three generations—grandparents, parents, and children.

People can’t change the genes they inherit from their parents, but they can change things like diet, physical activity, and medical care to prevent diseases that may run in the family.

Early-Onset Alzheimer’s

There is a test to learn if a person has the gene changes that cause familial Alzheimer’s disease, or FAD, which occurs between a person’s 30s and mid-60s.

If someone has a family history of FAD, he or she should talk with a doctor about getting tested.

A doctor may suggest meeting first with a genetic counselor. This type of counselor helps people learn the risk of getting genetic conditions. They also help people make decisions about testing and what comes next.

Share this infographic and help spread the word about Alzheimer’s genetics. 

For More Information About Assessing Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

The National Institute on Aging’s ADEAR Center offers information and free print publications about Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias for families, caregivers, and health professionals. ADEAR Center staff answer telephone, email, and written requests and make referrals to local and national resources.

National Human Genome Research Institute

Alzheimer’s Association
1-800-272-3900 (toll-free, 24/7) 
1-866-403-3073 (TTY/toll-free)

Alzheimer’s Foundation of America
1-866-232-8484 (toll-free)

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Recent Study On Alzheimer’s Genetics Mutation.

Scientists believe that many factors influence when Alzheimer‘s disease begins and how it progresses. The more they study this devastating disease, the more they realize that genes play an important role. Research conducted and funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and others is advancing our understanding of Alzheimer’s disease genetics.

The Genetics of Disease

Some diseases are caused by a genetic mutation, or permanent change in one or more specific genes. If a person inherits from a parent a genetic mutation that causes a certain disease, then he or she will usually get the disease. Sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease are examples of inherited genetic disorders.

In other diseases, a genetic variant may occur. A single gene can have many variants. Sometimes, this difference in a gene can cause a disease directly. More often, a variant plays a role in increasing or decreasing a person’s risk of developing a disease or condition. When a genetic variant increases disease risk but does not directly cause a disease, it is called agenetic risk factor.

Identifying genetic variants may help researchers find the most effective ways to treat or prevent diseases such as Alzheimer’s in an individual. This approach, called precision medicine, takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person.

Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics

Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disease. It is characterized by the development of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary, or tau, tangles; the loss of connections between nerve cells (neurons) in the brain; and the death of these nerve cells. There are two types of Alzheimer’s—early-onset and late-onset. Both types have a genetic component.

Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

Early-onset Alzheimer’s disease occurs between a person’s 30s to mid-60s and represents less than 10 percent of all people with Alzheimer’s. Some cases are caused by an inherited change in one of three genes, resulting in a type known as early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease, or FAD. For other cases of early-onset Alzheimer’s, research suggests there may be a genetic component related to factors other than these three genes.

A child whose biological mother or father carries a genetic mutation for early-onset FAD has a 50/50 chance of inheriting that mutation. If the mutation is in fact inherited, the child has a very strong probability of developing early-onset FAD.

Early-onset FAD is caused by any one of a number of different single-gene mutations on chromosomes 21, 14, and 1. Each of these mutations causes abnormal proteins to be formed. Mutations on chromosome 21 cause the formation of abnormal amyloid precursor protein (APP). A mutation on chromosome 14 causes abnormal presenilin 1 to be made, and a mutation on chromosome 1 leads to abnormal presenilin 2.

Each of these mutations plays a role in the breakdown of APP, a protein whose precise function is not yet fully understood. This breakdown is part of a process that generates harmful forms of amyloid plaques, a hallmark of the disease.

Critical research findings about early-onset Alzheimer’s have helped identify key steps in the formation of brain abnormalities typical of the more common late-onset form of Alzheimer’s. Genetics studies have helped explain why the disease develops in people at various ages.

NIA-supported scientists are continuing research into early-onset disease through the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN), an international partnership to study families with early-onset FAD. By observing the Alzheimer’s-related brain changes that occur in these families long before symptoms of memory loss or cognitive issues appear, scientists hope to gain insight into how and why the disease develops in both its early- and late-onset forms.

In addition, an NIA-supported clinical trial in Colombia, South America, is testing the effectiveness of an amyloid-clearing drug in symptom-free volunteers at high risk of developing early-onset FAD.

For more information, see NIA’s Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease: A Resource List.

Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

Most people with Alzheimer’s have the late-onset form of the disease, in which symptoms become apparent in the mid-60s and later. The causes of late-onset Alzheimer’s are not yet completely understood, but they likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that affect a person’s risk for developing the disease.

Researchers have not found a specific gene that directly causes the late-onset form of the disease. However, one genetic risk factor—having one form of theapolipoprotein E (APOE) gene on chromosome 19—does increase a person’s risk. APOE comes in several different forms, or alleles:

  • APOE ε2 is relatively rare and may provide some protection against the disease. If Alzheimer’s disease occurs in a person with this allele, it usually develops later in life than it would in someone with the APOE ε4 gene.
  • APOE ε3, the most common allele, is believed to play a neutral role in the disease—neither decreasing nor increasing risk.
  • APOE ε4 increases risk for Alzheimer’s disease and is also associated with an earlier age of disease onset. A person has zero, one, or two APOE ε4 alleles. Having more APOE ε4 alleles increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s.

APOE ε4 is called a risk-factor gene because it increases a person’s risk of developing the disease. However, inheriting an APOE ε4 allele does not mean that a person will definitely develop Alzheimer’s. Some people with an APOE ε4 allele never get the disease, and others who develop Alzheimer’s do not have any APOE ε4 alleles.

Using a relatively new approach called genome-wide association study (GWAS), researchers have identified a number of regions of interest in the genome (an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes) that may increase a person’s risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s to varying degrees. By 2015, they had confirmed 33 regions of interest in the Alzheimer’s genome.

A method called whole genome sequencing determines the complete DNA sequence of a person’s genome at a single time. Another method called whole exome sequencing looks at the parts of the genome that directly code for the proteins. Using these two approaches, researchers can identify new genes that contribute to or protect against disease risk. Recent discoveries have led to new insights about biological pathways involved in Alzheimer’s and may one day lead to effective interventions.

Genetic Testing

A blood test can identify which APOE alleles a person has, but results cannot predict who will or will not develop Alzheimer’s disease. It is unlikely that genetic testing will ever be able to predict the disease with 100 percent accuracy, researchers believe, because too many other factors may influence its development and progression.

Currently, APOE testing is used in research settings to identify study participants who may have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s. This knowledge helps scientists look for early brain changes in participants and compare the effectiveness of treatments for people with different APOE profiles. Most researchers believe that APOE testing is useful for studying Alzheimer’s disease risk in large groups of people but not for determining any one person’s risk.

Genetic testing is used by researchers conducting clinical trials and by physicians to help diagnose early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. However, genetic testing is not otherwise recommended.

Research Questions

Discovering all that we can about the role of Alzheimer’s disease genetic risk and protective factors is an important area of research. Understanding more about the genetic basis of the disease will help researchers to:

  • Answer a number of basic questions—What makes the disease process begin? Why do some people with memory and other thinking problems develop Alzheimer’s while others do not?
  • Determine how genetic risk and protective factors may interact with other genes and lifestyle or environmental factors to affect Alzheimer’s risk in any one person.
  • Identify people who are at high risk for developing Alzheimer’s so they can benefit from new interventions and treatments as soon as possible.
  • Focus on new prevention and treatment approaches.


  • Allele—A form of a gene. Each person receives two alleles of a gene, one from each biological parent. This combination is one factor among many that influence a variety of processes in the body. On chromosome 19, the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene has three common alleles: ε2, ε3, and ε4.
  • Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene—A gene on chromosome 19 involved in making a protein that helps carry cholesterol and other types of fat in the bloodstream. The APOE ε4 allele is the major known risk-factor gene for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Chromosome—A compact structure containing DNA and proteins present in nearly all cells of the body. Chromosomes carry genes, which direct the cell to make proteins and direct a cell’s construction, operation, and repair. Normally, each cell has 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. Each biological parent contributes one of each pair of chromosomes.
  • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)—The hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Almost all cells in a person’s body have the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus.
  • Gene—A basic unit of heredity. Genes direct a cell to make proteins and guide almost every aspect of a cell’s construction, operation, and repair.
  • Genetic mutation—A permanent change in a gene that can be passed on to children. The rare, early-onset familial form of Alzheimer’s disease is associated with mutations in genes on chromosomes 21, 14, and 1.
  • Genetic risk factor—A change in a gene that increases a person’s risk of developing a disease.
  • Genetic variant—A change in a gene that may increase or decrease a person’s risk of developing a disease or condition.
  • Genome—An organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism.
  • Genome-wide association study (GWAS)—A study approach that involves rapidly scanning the genomes of many individuals to find genetic variations associated with a particular disease.
  • Protein—A substance that determines the physical and chemical characteristics of a cell and therefore of an organism. Proteins are essential to all cell functions and are created using genetic information.
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How You Think About Your Arthritis Makes a Difference

​Confidence in your ability to remainactive improves day-to-day life, study finds.

How well you cope with knee arthritis depends a lot on your mental outlook, a new study suggests.

Despite often-debilitating pain, people who remain confident in their ability to move about end up more active than their less confident peers, researchers found. Studies have shown that physical activity may be one of the best ways to reduce and manage symptoms of osteoarthritis.

The Pennsylvania State University study was based on 135 adults with knee arthritis.

On a day when patients felt more confident in their ability to be active, they indeed took more steps and spent more time in moderate-intensity activity, despite their level of pain that day.

What’s more, “this positive effect of patients‘ confidence on their actual physical activity was found for patients with varying degrees of pain in the morning.

The researchers also observed that predicting individual activity levels was best done by focusing on someone’s personal confidence, rather than comparing them to someone else.

It’s all about what you think you’re able to do.

The findings “suggest that future physical activity interventions for people with osteoarthritis should target patients’ confidence in their ability to be active,”

Arthritis is a major cause of chronic pain formany adults. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates more than one-third of American seniors have osteoarthritis, the wear-and-tear form of the disease. Symptoms typically include joint pain, swelling and stiffness.

Such patients are often caught in a catch-22 situation. While research has shown that physical activity is effective for pain and overall function, the ongoing pain makes it hard to meet federal recommendations for at least 2.5 hours of moderate-intensity activity a week.

Not exercising leads to greater stiffness and deterioration in muscle strength, the researchers said.

For this study, the investigators wanted to see how someone’s “self-efficacy” in the morning affected their day-to-day living with arthritis. This term refers to the degree to which people feel confident in their capacity to do or achieve something.

The researchers used accelerometers to track each participant’s total number of steps and the physical intensity of their daily activities over roughly three weeks.

Each morning the patients also noted how confident they felt in their ability to keep active, their pain level, and their overall mood.

The research team found that those who felt more confident in the morning about their ability to get around did actually move more throughout the day. This was so despite shifting levels of pain, mood or support from a spouse.

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Nearly 4 Million Worldwide Die Each Year From Asthma, COPD


​In poorer countries these respiratory illnesses too often go undiagnosed and untreated, report finds.

Two major chronic lung diseases –asthma and COPD — kill nearly 4 million people worldwide annually, a new report finds. The study calculates that 3.2 million peopledied in 2015 from COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) — a group of lung conditions that includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis, often tied to smoking. Asthma caused another 400,000 deaths, the report found.

While asthma is more common, COPD is much more deadly. And while both conditions can be treated, many people remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. In addition, in many countries, treatment — if it exists at all — may be at insufficient levels, the research team added.

Although much of the burden [from these illnesses] is either preventable or treatable with affordable interventions, these diseases have received less attention than other prominent non-communicable diseases like cardiovascular disease, cancer or diabetes.

Smoking and air pollution are the leading causes of COPD, the study authors noted. The causes of asthma are less certain but are thought to include allergens and smoking.
One expert in respiratory health agreed that both diseases take a heavy, but treatable, toll on health.
Asthma may be fairly easily controlled and even reversed with medications,” noted Dr. Len Horovitz, a pulmonary specialist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City.

And while COPD is also treatable , lung damage is permanent and the natural aging process of the lung is the progressive or accelerated loss of alveoli (lung tissue),” he added. “So the decline in lung function is life-long, whereas asthma does not have this issue.”

Overall, the diseases have become less common and less deadly since 1990 when judged by rates. But absolute case numbers worldwide have gone up because there are more people in the world — and more elderly people.

The researchers found that COPD hit these countries the hardest: India, Lesotho, Nepaland Papua New Guinea. Asthma was an especially high burden in these countries: Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Fiji, Kiribati, Lesotho, Papua New Guinea, and Swaziland.
Indoor cooking fuels — “biomass” materials, such wood and coal,for example — remain a major source of respiratory illness in poorer nations.

The use of these cooking fuels is one of the greatest causes of air pollution. Nowadays, more than half of the world’s population uses biomass fuel as a primary cooking source, resulting in a high burden of morbidity and mortality. To reduce household air pollution, a switch to cleaner fuels would be desirable. However, this change is not always possible due to financial or logistical constraints, especially in urban slums.

Interventions aimed at replacing smoke-generating cook stoves with cheap, cleaner-burning devices would go a long way toward cutting the burden of asthma and COPD worldwide.


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Various Types Of treatment For Combating Severe Acne 

​What Are the Treatments for Acne?

The occasional pimple can be concealed. The best treatments inhibit sebum production, limit bacterial growth, or encourage shedding of skin cells to unclog pores. Because many therapies can have side effects, any patient with acne should proceed with caution when trying a new treatment. People with any type of acne that lowers their self-esteem or makes them unhappy, those with acne that is leaving scars or people with severe, persistent cases of acne, need the care of a dermatologist.
Nonprescription Treatment for Acne

Soap and water. Gentle cleansing of the face with soap and water no more than two times a day can help with acne. However, this does not clear up acne that is already present. Aggressive scrubbing can injure the skin and cause other skin problems.

Cleansers. There are many cleansers and soaps advertised for treating acne. They often contain benzoyl peroxide, glycolic acid, salicylic acid , or sulfur.

Benzoyl peroxide. For mild acne, you may try, or your doctor may recommend, treatment with a nonprescription drug that contains benzoyl peroxide. It’s believed that this compound works by destroying the bacteria associated with acne. It usually takes at least four weeks to work and it must be used continuously to keep acne at bay. Like many over-the-counter and prescription products, it does not affect sebum production or the way the skin follicle cells are shed, and when you stop using it, the acne comes back. It is available in many forms: creams, lotions, washes, and gels. Benzoyl peroxide can cause dry skin and can bleach fabrics, so take care when applying it. Consider wearing an old T-shirt to bed if you are applying it to your back or chest overnight.

Salicylic acid. On the skin, salicylic acid helps to correct the abnormal shedding of cells. For milder acne, salicylic acid helps unclog pores to resolve and prevent lesions. It does not have any effect on sebum production and does not kill bacteria. It must be used continuously, just like benzoyl peroxide, because its effects stop when you stop using it — pores clog up again and the acne returns. Salicylic acid is available in many acne products, including lotions, creams, and pads.

Sulfur. In combination with other substances such as alcohol and salicylic acid, sulfur is a component of many over-the-counter acne medications. It usually isn’t used by itself because of its unpleasant odor. It’s unclear how sulfur works, but it has only a marginal benefit in most cases.

Topical retinol gel. Retinol works to keep pimples from being able to form. It effects the growth of cells and decreases swelling and inflammation. Your acne may appear to get worse before it gets better because it will work on the pimples that have already started forming beneath your skin. It must be used continuously and may take 8-12 weeks to get results. Retinol used to be available in only a prescription strength. Differin Gel is the only topical retinoid approved as an over-the- counter treatment for acne.

Alcohol and acetone. Alcohol is a mild anti- bacterial agent, and acetone can remove oils from the surface of the skin. These substances are combined in some over-the-counter acne drugs. These agents dry out the skin, have little or no effect on acne, and are generally not recommended by dermatologists.

Herbal, organic, and “natural” medications. There are many herbal, organic, and natural products marketed to treat or prevent acne. The effectiveness of these agents isn’t proven and they are unlikely to have much benefit.

Note: When pus-filled pimples are ready to break, apply a hot towel for a few minutes to encourage the natural bursting process. Inflamed pimples should be opened only by a nurse or doctor using surgical instruments and following antiseptic practices. Squeezing pimples yourself may lead to further problems and perhaps permanent scars.

Prescription Treatments for Acne

Antibiotics . Antibiotics may be used on top of the skin (topical) or taken orally (systemic). Antibiotics work by clearing the skin of acne-causing bacteria and reducing inflammation. There are several topical products available in creams, gels, solutions, pads, and lotions. Topical antibiotics are limited in their ability to penetrate the skin and clear more deep-seated acne, whereas systemic antibiotics circulate throughout the body and into sebaceous glands. However, systemic antibiotics often cause more side effects than topicals, but they can be used for more severe kinds of acne. Usually, topical antibiotics aren’t recommended alone as an acne treatment, as they can increase the risk for antibiotic resistance in skin bacteria. However, using benzoyl peroxide with a topical antibiotic may reduce the chances of developing antibiotic resistance.

Topical clindamycin and erythromycin are antibiotics that are also anti-inflammatory drugs and are effective against a number of bacteria. They should always be combined with benzoyl peroxide or a topical retinoid and applied directly to the skin. Oral erythromycin is also available, but you may become resistant to its effects, limiting its usefulness. Other oral antibiotics often used are doxycyclineminocycline, and tetracycline, all of which are quite effective in many cases of acne.

Antibiotics do not address the other causative factors in acne and may take several weeks or months to clear it up. Antibiotics are often used in combination with other drugs that “unclog” follicles. Many oral antibiotics for acne should not be used during pregnancy .

Retinoids or vitamin A derivatives. These drugs are available as topical or oral drugs. Topical retinoids clear up moderate-to-severe acne by normalizing the way the skin grows and sheds. They can be used in combination with other acne products, such as benzoyl peroxide and oral antibiotics. Topical retinoids don’t have the severe side effects of oral retinoids; however, they aren’t recommended for pregnant or nursing women. Side effects of topical retinoids include redness, dryness, and itchy skin.

For severe cystic acne, isotretinoin is the most effective therapy. This drug is the only drug that intervenes in all of the causes of acne. It can often even clear severe acne that hasn’t responded to other treatments. However, the product can have side effects. It can cause severe birth defects and must NEVER be taken by a woman who is pregnant or who is not using contraception . In addition, it shouldn’t be taken by a woman who is nursing. Some studies suggest its use has been associated with an increased risk of depression , suicide , and inflammatory bowel disease . Talk to your doctor about the potential risks of this drug.

Other side effects are dry skin and lips, muscle and joint pain, headache, elevated triglyceride levels (a type of cholesterol), and, rarely, thinning hair. For most people taking these drugs, side effects are tolerable and not a reason to discontinue therapy before the acne clears up.

Azelaic acid. Another topical is azelaic acid, which comes in a gel or cream and has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. It is more commonly used for another type of condition called rosacea, but it may help mild acne.

Dapsone. Dapsone is a topical gel that is antibacterial and anti-inflammatory.

Oral contraceptives . Birth control pills contain female hormones that work by counteracting the effect of male hormones (such as testosterone ) on acne. Their use is limited to female patients. The maximum benefit of oral contraceptives on acne occurs in three to four months. Side effects include nausea , weight gain, spotting, breast tenderness, and blood clots .

Spironolactone . Spironolactone is an oral drug that can block the action of the body’s hormones on the skin’s oil glands. This medication is not FDA-approved for acne, but is especially helpful for women who have acne that worsens around the time of menstruation .

Another common drug your doctor may try is triamcinolone, a type of corticosteroid that is injected directly into acne nodules.

Warning About Acne Treatments

Patients taking acne drugs should be alert to possible side effects and interactions with other drugs and herbal remedies.

The topical retinoids and benzoyl peroxide can leave skin reddened, dry, and sensitive to sunlight.

Oral antibiotics may cause sensitivity of sunlight and stomach upset.

Benzoyl peroxide may inhibit the effects of some topical retinoids, so never apply them at the same time of day.

Taking oral antibiotics for more than a few weeks may leave women susceptible to yeast infections.

Some over-the-counter acne products can cause rare but serious allergic reactions or severe irritation. Seek emergency medical attention if you have symptoms such as throat tightness, difficulty breathing, feeling faint, or swelling of the face or tongue. Also stop using the product if you develop hives or itching . Symptoms can appear anywhere from minutes to a day or longer after use.

Acne Scar Treatments

Some adults carry scars from acne. Some relatively aggressive surgical procedures can improve scars. 

Procedures include dermabrasion , several types of lasers, injections under the skin called “fillers,” and chemical peeling. These procedures remove the scarred surface and expose unblemished skin layers. Dermatologists also occasionally use glycolic acid and other chemical peels to loosen blackheads and decrease pimples.

Microdermabrasion has little effect on acne itself, but is effective in combination with lasers.. Before considering such treatment it is important to discuss the procedures, necessary precautions, and likely results with a doctor.

How Can I Prevent Acne?

Because of acne’s association with fluctuating hormone levels and possible genetic influences, many doctors believe there is no way to prevent it. The accepted wisdom is that neither good hygiene nor diet can prevent outbreaks. Treatments can control acne and minimize future breakouts. Sensible skin care is recommended, especially during adolescence. The basics include a daily bath or shower and washing the face and hands with unscented or mildly antibacterial soap.

Other tips for preventing future outbreaks include:

*Use non-comedogenic or sensitive skin products to reduce the chance of new lesions and minimize skin irritation.

*Use a mild cleanser twice a day.

*Avoid cleansers or products that contain scrubbing particles or have a gritty texture. These products can irritate the skin and lead to breakouts.

*Use a daily non-comedogenic moisturizer and sunscreen.

*Wear makeup that is non comedogenic.

*Avoid picking, squeezing, or popping pimples. This can lead to scarring and skin infections. Try this product for fast treatment of acne

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Signs And Symptoms That Might Be Hard To Notices When Infected with HIV/AIDS Virus

Signs and Symptoms of HIV/AIDS

At the first stage of HIV many individuals develop most common symptoms which includes fever,large tender lymphnodes, throat inflammation, a rash, headache, and/or sores of the mouth and genitals in 2–4 weeks post exposure while others have no significant symptoms. The duration of the symptoms varies, but is usually one or two weeks.
These symptoms are not often recognized as signs of HIV infection, without treatment, this virus get to the second stage of the HIV infection and can last for about three years to over 20 years(on average, about eight years) before becoming AIDS, at the end of this stage many people experience fever, weight loss, gastrointestinal problems and muscle pains.

Symptoms Experience When The HIV Turns AIDS

People with AIDS have an increased risk of developing various viral-induced cancers, including Kaposi’s sarcoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and cervical cancer. The second most common cancer is lymphoma, which is the second cause of death of nearly 16% of people with AIDS. Additionally, people with AIDS frequently have systemic symptoms such as prolong sweats (particularly at night), swollen lymph nodes, chills, weakness, and unintended weight loss. Diarrhea is another common symptom, present in about 90% of people with AIDS.

HIV/AIDs Symptoms in Men And Women

According to CDC, women made up 19 percent of the United States’ new HIV diagnoses in 2014, vast majority of new HIV diagnoses are majorly among Africa and African American women. New HIV cases diagnosed in women are more compared to new men’s HIV cases.

Symptoms that are common with HIV include:

*.Body rash


*.Sore throat

*.Severe headaches

Symptoms associated with AIDS include:

*.Persistent diarrhea



*.Rapid weight loss


*.Sores or ulcers in the mouth

*.Vaginal infections, like yeast infections and bacterial vaginosis

*.Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

*.Recurring fever

*.Recurring chills

*.Recurring night sweats

*.Shortness of breath


*.Persistent or prolonged swelling of the lymph nodes

*.Memory loss, confusion or neurological disorders

Mode Of Transmittion Of HIV/AIDS


Sexual Transmission– It can happen when there is contact with infected sexual fluids (rectal, genital, or oral mucous membranes). This can happen while having unprotected sex, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex with someone infected with HIV. As of 2014, most HIV transmission in the United States occurred among men who had sex with men(83% of new HIV diagnoses among males aged 13 and older and 67% of total new diagnoses).

Blood Transmission–  The risk of transmitting HIV through blood transfusion. Transmission can be through needle-sharing during intravenous drug use, needle stick injury, transfusion of contaminated blood or blood product, or medical injections with unsterilized equipment. 


People giving or receiving tattoos, piercings, and scarification are theoretically at risk of infection but no confirmed cases have been documented. It is not possible for mosquitoes or other insects to transmit HIV.

Mother-To-Child Transmission

HIV can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, during delivery, or throught breast milk resulting in infection in the baby. This is the third most common way in which HIV is transmitted globally. 

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Hair Loss: Causes, Treatments, and Prevention

Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from part of the head or body.  Hair is made up of a protein called keratin that is produced in hair follicles in the outer layer of skin. As follicles produce new hair cells, old cells are being pushed out through the surface of the skin at the rate of about six inches a year.
Each follicle has its own life cycle that can be influenced by age, disease, and a wide variety of other factors.


Baldness is the partial or complete lack of hair growth, and part of the wider topic of “hair thinning”. The degree and pattern of baldness varies, but its most common cause is androgenic hair loss and alopecia androgenetica or areatais.

Alopecia areatais

a form of hair loss produced by the autoimmune destruction of hair follicles in localized areas of skin. A common condition, alopecia areata usually starts as a single quarter-sized circle of perfectly smooth bald skin. These patches usually regrow in three to six months without treatment.
Androgenetica hair loss is seen in both men and women but is more dramatic in men.

Causes Of Hair Loss

Patchy Hair Loss   Some conditions produce small areas of hair loss, while others affect large areas of the scalp. Common causes of patchy hair loss are:

*.Alopecia areata (small circular or coin size patches of scalp baldness that usually grow back within months),

*.Traction alopecia (thinning from tight braids or ponytails),who pull on their hair with excessive force. In addition, rigorous brushing and heat styling, rough scalp massage can damage the cuticle, the hard outer casing of the hair. This causes individual strands to become weak and break off, reducing overall hair volume.

*.Trichotillomania (the habit of twisting or pulling hair out), Onset of this disorder tends to begin around the onset of puberty and usually continues through adulthood. Due to the constant extraction of the hair roots, permanent hair loss can occur.

Tinea capitis (fungal infection), Tinea capitis is more common in black African or African-American scalps, Baldspots usually show broken-off hairs and is accompanied by a dermatitis. Sharing hats or combs and brushes may transmit tinea capitis.

Drugs   Temporary or permanent hair loss can be caused by several medications, including those forblood pressure problems, diabetes, heart disease and cholesterol. Any that affect the body’s hormone balance can have a pronounced effect: these include the contraceptive pill, hormone replacement therapy, steroids and acne medications.

Medications (side effects from drugs, including chemotherapy,anabolic steroids, and birth control pills can causes hair loss.

What Is Telogen Effluvium?

Under normal conditions, scalp hairs live for about three years (the anagen, or growing, phase); they then enter the telogen, or resting, phase, then the hair falls out. It is therefore normal to lose about 100 hairs every day, more of them on days when shampooing loosens the hairs that are ready to fall out. The hairs are then replaced by the body.

when the hair falls out, it’s all over the place — covering the pillow, clogging the drain, and so forth.(Moreover, it can happen after one pregnancy, but not the next) Paradoxically, the more dramatic the hair loss, the better the prognosis, because when the body gets back into normal rhythm, most if not all of that hair comes back; these people need no special treatment.


Pregnancy is one example of the type of physical stress that can cause hair loss (that and hormones). Pregnancy-related hair loss is seen more commonly after your baby hasbeen delivered rather than actually during pregnancy.

What is androgenetic or androgenic alopecia (“male-pattern baldness,””female-pattern baldness”)?

This type of alopecia is often attributed to genetic predisposition and family history. Androgenic alopecia is seen in both men and women. The hair loss in men is often faster, earlier onset, and more extensive. Doctors refer to common baldness as “androgenetic alopecia” or “androgenic alopecia,” which implies that a combination of hormones and heredity (genetics) is needed to develop the condition. The exactcause of this pattern is unknown. (The male hormones involved are present in both men and women.)

Other Causes Of Hair Loss Include:

An unhealthy scalp environment can play a significant role in hair thinning by contributing to miniaturization or causing damage. Air and water pollutants, environmental toxins, conventional styling products and excessive amounts of sebum have the potential to build up on the scalp. This debris can block hair follicles and cause their deterioration and consequent miniaturization of hair. It can also physically restrict hair growth or damage the hair cuticle, leading to hair that is weakened and easily broken off before its natural lifecycle has ended.

Stress And Hair Loss

Both emotional and physical stress (such as a serious illness or recovery from surgery) have been associated with hair loss. It is possible that stress induces hormonal changes that are responsible for hair loss. Hair has a programmed life cycle: a growth phase, rest phase and shedding phase. “When you have a really stressful event, it can shock the hair cycle, (pushing) more hair into the shedding phase.

How Hair Thinning And Baldness Can Affect Us Emotionally

Psychological Stress

Hair thinning and baldness cause psychological stress due to their effect on appearance. Although society interest in appearance has a long history, this particular branch of psychology came into its own during the 1960s and has gained momentum as messages associating physical attractiveness with success and happiness grow more prevalent. The psychology of hair thinning is a complex issue. Hair is considered an essential part of overall identity: especially for women, for whom it often represents femininity and attractiveness. Men typically associate a full head of hair with youth and vigor. Although they may be aware of pattern baldness in their family, many are uncomfortable talking about the issue.

Hair thinning is a sensitive issue for both sexes. For sufferers, it can represent a loss of control and feelings of isolation. People experiencing hair thinning often find themselves in a situation where their physical appearance is at odds with their ownself-image and commonly worry that they appear older than they are or less attractive to others. Psychological problems due to baldness, if present, are typically most severe at the onset of symptoms.

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Secret Fact You Don’t know About The HIV/AIDS Virus

In the interest of human reproductive significant, it is considered relevant to give more facts about HIV/AIDS for purpose of education and knowledge/awareness.
The Meaning Of HIV/AIDS

HIV is an abbreviations or an acronym for “Human Immunodeficiency Virus“- the virus that causes AIDS, a sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The virus causing AIDS, attacks and destroy certain white blood cells in the immune system. This leave the infected person without a defense when disease causing microorganisms invade his body. As a result, he suffers from all kinds of microbial infections which eventually cause his death.

AIDS is the abbreviations or an acronym for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is a disease in which the immune systems is completely broken down by a Micro-Organisms, these microorganisms cause infections known as “Opportunistic Infections” an (OI) diseases. AIDS is at present the most deadly sexually transmitted diseases.

When One Is Infected With HIV

The body’s defense or immune cells are normally the white blood cells, especially specific type of immune cells known as T-helper or CD4 cells. When an individual is infected with, HIV, the virus enter the body and inhabits the white blood cells where it multiplies primarily. As the virus grows, it destroys these defense cells and other cells, thus weakening the body’s immune system. Once the immune system losses too many CD4 cells, the body’s defense against infections crumbles and the victim becomes vulnerable to various disease-causing Micro-Organisms causing various opportunistic infections and other diseases ranging from pneumonia to cancer.
According to the US Centres For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an individual is diagnosed for AIDS if he/she has either one or both of the following conditions:

i. The presence of one or more of the 21 AIDS-related OIS or illnesses; and a CD4 count has reached or fellen below 200 cells per cm of blood.

ii. A healthy person has a normal T-cell count or CD4 count of 450 to 1,250 cells per cm of blood.

How Soon Do Person Infected With Develop AIDS?

In some individuals, symptoms of AIDS develop soon after infection with HIV. Such symptoms include decline in Tcell or CD4 count and presence of IOs signaling AIDS. But in most people, the symptoms take 10 to 12 years to develop while in a few others, it even takes longer time. Early medical care in most disease is essential to prolong one’s life.

How The HIV/AIDS Virus Was Discovered

AIDS was first clinically observed in 1981 in the United States. In the early days, the CDC did not have an official name for the disease, often referring to it by way of the diseases that were associated with it, for example-lymphadenopathy. At one point, the CDC coined the phrase “the 4H disease”, since the syndrome seemed to affect heroin users, homosexuals, hemophiliacs, and Haitians.
The term AIDS was introduced at a meeting in July 1982. By September 1982 the CDC started referring to the disease as AIDS. In 1983, two separate research groups led by Robert Galloand and Luc Montagnier declared that a novel retrovirus may have been infecting people with AIDS.
Both research group discovery almost looks the same. Because if the striking similar in shape to other human lymphadenopathy viruses, Galloand group named it HTLVs-III which is Human T-lymphotropic viruses. While Montagnier named it lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV)

As these two viruses turned out to be the same, in 1986, LAV and HTLV-III were renamed HIV.

Origin: Where Did The HIV/AIDS Came From?

Two types of HIV have been characterized: HIV-1 and HIV-2.

HIV-1 is the virus that was originally discovered (and initially referred to also as LAV or HTLV-III). It is more virulent, more infective, and is the cause of the majority of HIV infections globally. 

While the lower infectivity of HIV-2 as compared with HIV-1 implies that fewer people exposed to HIV-2 will be infected per exposure. Because of its relatively poor capacity for transmission, HIV-2 is mostly confined to West Africa.

Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 are believed to have originated in nonhuman primates in West-central Africa and were transferred to humans in the early 20th century. HIV-1 appears to have originated in southern Cameroon through the evolution of SIV(cpz) – simian immuno deficiency virus. 

The African green monkey is the source of SIV, the sooty mangabey — an Old World monkey living in coastal West Africa (from southern Senegal to western Côte d’Ivoire). Old World monkeys such as the owl monkey is the source of HIV-2 and the chimpanzee source of HIV-1

The earliest well-documented case of HIV in a human dates back to 1959 in the Congo. The earliest retrospectively described case of AIDS is believed to have been in Norway beginning in 1966. Dr. Jacques Pépin, a Quebecer author of The Origins of AIDS, stipulates that Haiti was one of HIV‘s entry points to the United States and that one of them may have carried HIV back across the Atlantic in the 1960s.

By 1978, the prevalence of HIV-1 among homosexual male residents of New York City and San Francisco was estimated at 5%, suggesting that several thousand individuals in the country had been infected.

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Hospice Care: What Is The Goal?

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TERMINAL ILLNESS presents a challenge, not only for the patient but also for the family. Relatives face a difficult decision. Should the ailing one’s life be prolonged at all costs, even if that includes needless sustained suffering? Or should they strive to maintain the best quality of life for their loved one in the time that remains?

For many, hospice care is a visable option, it is defined as care and attention to the emotional, spiritual, social, and financial needs of terminally ill patients. The goal is to alleviate the suffering of those who are terminally ill. Hospice is now available, even if to a limited degree, in about half the countries of the world. For example, because of the growing number of HIV/AIDS and cancer patients in Africa, most countries there either have such programs or are now taking steps to implement them.


Some patients may feel that enrolling in a hospice program is equivalent to giving up on life. Family members may feel that placing a loved one in hospice is tantamount to waiting callously for him or her to die. However, hospice is not simply a passive resignation to the inevitable. Rather, it can help the patient to enjoy a dignified, meaningful life in the company of loved ones for as long as possible, while controlling pain. It can also give the patient’s family a chance to comfort and support their loved one for as long as that is needed.
Although hospice cannot cure terminal illness, it can address curable complicateds. Such as pneumonia or bladder infections. If circumstances changed for example, if a cure is developed or if the disease goes into remission the patient can return to regular treatment.


In some countries, hospice care is given only at a health care facility. In other places, though, family members are able to provide care at home. With home care, the patient can participate in family life. Home based care also fits the cultural needs of many countries, such as Uganda, where the custom is for family members to care for the sick and elderly.
Under the home based hospice program, caregivers after have at their disposal a support team, perhaps including a doctor, nurses, aides, and social worker. Such professionals can educate caregivers on how to keep the patient comfortable and explain what they expect during the dying process. They also work along with the wishes of the patient and family. For example family wishes, the hospice workers will avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests or tube feeding when the patient can no longer process food.

Having professionals on call is a vital part of hospice, as these skilled men and women can supervise medications and ensure that the patient’s is pain free and at the same time as alert as possible. They van also administer oxygen therapy. The assistance of these professionals gives the caregivers and the patient confidence, eliminating the fear of suffering from severe pain or other distressing symptoms during the end of life phase.


If hospice care is available where you live, it can be a realistic, compassionate alternative to a hospital or a nursing home. The hospice personnel are professionals and compassionate. Their advice and expertise are very valuable. I believe there couldn’t be any other type of care for the elderly men or women.

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