In the interest of human reproductive significant, it is considered relevant to give more facts about HIV/AIDS for purpose of education and knowledge/awareness.
The Meaning Of HIV/AIDS
HIV is an abbreviations or an acronym for “Human Immunodeficiency Virus“- the virus that causes AIDS, a sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The virus causing AIDS, attacks and destroy certain white blood cells in the immune system. This leave the infected person without a defense when disease causing microorganisms invade his body. As a result, he suffers from all kinds of microbial infections which eventually cause his death.
AIDS is the abbreviations or an acronym for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is a disease in which the immune systems is completely broken down by a Micro-Organisms, these microorganisms cause infections known as “Opportunistic Infections” an (OI) diseases. AIDS is at present the most deadly sexually transmitted diseases.
When One Is Infected With HIV
The body’s defense or immune cells are normally the white blood cells, especially specific type of immune cells known as T-helper or CD4 cells. When an individual is infected with, HIV, the virus enter the body and inhabits the white blood cells where it multiplies primarily. As the virus grows, it destroys these defense cells and other cells, thus weakening the body’s immune system. Once the immune system losses too many CD4 cells, the body’s defense against infections crumbles and the victim becomes vulnerable to various disease-causing Micro-Organisms causing various opportunistic infections and other diseases ranging from pneumonia to cancer.
According to the US Centres For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an individual is diagnosed for AIDS if he/she has either one or both of the following conditions:
i. The presence of one or more of the 21 AIDS-related OIS or illnesses; and a CD4 count has reached or fellen below 200 cells per cm of blood.
ii. A healthy person has a normal T-cell count or CD4 count of 450 to 1,250 cells per cm of blood.
How Soon Do Person Infected With Develop AIDS?
In some individuals, symptoms of AIDS develop soon after infection with HIV. Such symptoms include decline in T–cell or CD4 count and presence of IOs signaling AIDS. But in most people, the symptoms take 10 to 12 years to develop while in a few others, it even takes longer time. Early medical care in most disease is essential to prolong one’s life.
How The HIV/AIDS Virus Was Discovered
AIDS was first clinically observed in 1981 in the United States. In the early days, the CDC did not have an official name for the disease, often referring to it by way of the diseases that were associated with it, for example-lymphadenopathy. At one point, the CDC coined the phrase “the 4H disease”, since the syndrome seemed to affect heroin users, homosexuals, hemophiliacs, and Haitians.
The term AIDS was introduced at a meeting in July 1982. By September 1982 the CDC started referring to the disease as AIDS. In 1983, two separate research groups led by Robert Galloand and Luc Montagnier declared that a novel retrovirus may have been infecting people with AIDS.
Both research group discovery almost looks the same. Because if the striking similar in shape to other human lymphadenopathy viruses, Galloand group named it HTLVs-III which is Human T-lymphotropic viruses. While Montagnier named it lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV)
As these two viruses turned out to be the same, in 1986, LAV and HTLV-III were renamed HIV.
Origin: Where Did The HIV/AIDS Came From?
Two types of HIV have been characterized: HIV-1 and HIV-2.
HIV-1 is the virus that was originally discovered (and initially referred to also as LAV or HTLV-III). It is more virulent, more infective, and is the cause of the majority of HIV infections globally.
While the lower infectivity of HIV-2 as compared with HIV-1 implies that fewer people exposed to HIV-2 will be infected per exposure. Because of its relatively poor capacity for transmission, HIV-2 is mostly confined to West Africa.
Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 are believed to have originated in nonhuman primates in West-central Africa and were transferred to humans in the early 20th century. HIV-1 appears to have originated in southern Cameroon through the evolution of SIV(cpz) – simian immuno deficiency virus.
The African green monkey is the source of SIV, the sooty mangabey — an Old World monkey living in coastal West Africa (from southern Senegal to western Côte d’Ivoire). Old World monkeys such as the owl monkey is the source of HIV-2 and the chimpanzee source of HIV-1
The earliest well-documented case of HIV in a human dates back to 1959 in the Congo. The earliest retrospectively described case of AIDS is believed to have been in Norway beginning in 1966. Dr. Jacques Pépin, a Quebecer author of The Origins of AIDS, stipulates that Haiti was one of HIV‘s entry points to the United States and that one of them may have carried HIV back across the Atlantic in the 1960s.
By 1978, the prevalence of HIV-1 among homosexual male residents of New York City and San Francisco was estimated at 5%, suggesting that several thousand individuals in the country had been infected.
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