What It Means To Be Attractive To The Opposite Sex
Many facial features contribute to facial attractiveness: Averageness and symmetry are preferred by males and females, probably because they signal genetic quality and developmental stability. Men prefer highly feminized female faces because they reflect high estrogen levels and low testosterone levels. This indicates that the woman is reproductively healthy. Women, on the other hand, prefer a moderate level of male facial masculinity, since facial masculinity that is too pronounced, signals high level of testosterone and thereby a poorly developed pro-family personality.
In women, facial hair is detrimental to facial attractiveness.
In men, the effect is not consistent. Faces with a clear complexion are attractive to both men and women. Men prefer light and smooth skin in women. Positive facial expressions also enhance facial attractiveness. Many factors, in particular skin condition and facial proportions, affect perceived age, which is an important component of facial attractiveness. Men in particular strongly prefer youthful-looking female faces.
What This Really Means
It means, physical attractiveness has proven to have such serious interpersonal and social consequences that science cannot exclude it from its realm of study. Moreover, scientific research on physical attractiveness is justified because it is connected to the features of the perceiver and the person perceived. Physical attractiveness is assessed on the basis of different sensory data, e.g., voice, scent, appearance. The face is especially important, because it has many morphological elements, is the main channel of interpersonal communication and, in most cultures, is clearly visible. It is impossible to precisely define physical and facial attractiveness Further theoretical considerations, often based on the results of human research, have led to the formulation of many testable hypotheses on facial attractiveness, including:
(1) That an attractive face has average proportions, conspicuous sexual traits, a smooth skin, and symmetry;
(2) That all these traits are signs of the good health and genetic quality of the owner; and
(3) That the facial features that are perceived as attractive as well as the preferences for these features have been shaped during the course of biological evolution or hereditary.
Factors That Determine Attractiveness
Let take an example: A child’s face has the following features: high forehead, large, round eyes, bluish sclera, high eyebrows, thick, red lips, short, wide, concave nose, wide cheeks, short ears, and light. For this reason, a child’s face is more similar to a female face than that of a male. Age is an important criterion for mate choice, the female consider age as a factor of attractive an important criterion for mate choice. Female strongly prefer young male while on the other hand, for males, age is not generally related to Facial attractiveness.
A study found that women prefer babyish proportions to such a degree that they consider male that are gentle and caring to be attractive because signify a better and honest relationship.
The male preference for young-looking women is an adaptation, and a preference for very young-looking women is an overdiscrimination. In order for male preferences not to be directed toward females that are too young, they have to be dependent on maturity cues such as being respectful, being independent and also a mature, feminine body shape.
Most female may prefer not to mate with older man because of his health, physical fitness and, frequently, social status, deteriorates. The probability that he will die increases, and the probability that he will still be around to carry out his duties to his wife and children decreases. Therefore, there are good reasons why a woman would choose not to mate with an old man. On the other hand, a very young man is usually psychologically immature, emotionally unstable and irresponsible. He has low social status and possesses few resources. The theoretically best partner for a woman is middle-aged, which is why male faces signaling this age are the most attractive to women.
Body Shape or Specific facial features
Studies to date suggest that women prefer facial shapes that are near the masculine average. However, in studies on real faces, women preferred facial shapes which were above the masculine average. Males favor women with feminine faces :
* Small chin and high cheek bones
* Fuller and more peaked lips
* Large eyes (relative to face)
Females favor males who are slightly to moderately facially masculine but not extremely so
* Chins broader and longer
* Large brow ridge
This is probably because masculinity of male facial shape is correlated with some facial features that determine Facial attractiveness, Since female faces and children’s faces have similar features, men prefer highly feminized female faces for the same reasons that they prefer baby-faced women to an extend.
Evolutionary pressure for youthful appearance applies exclusively, or at least mainly, to women. Therefore, the differences between male and female faces correspond to the differences between adults’ and children.
Did you ever notice as a child that there were some children who seemed to be able to get away with anything? There has been some research showing that attractive children who misbehave are considered “less naughty” by adults than less attractive children. In elementary school, teachers often presumed the more attractive children were even more intelligent than the less attractive children.
Also conspicuously reddened lips are under the control of estrogen, and are probably a signal of seduction. It has been suggested that conspicuously red lips resemble the female genitals in shape and color, and thereby sexually arouse men. Therefore, they might have been subject to sexual selection during the course of evolution. In female men with highly masculinized faces are perceived to be, and actually are of high biological quality, including good genes and health.
However, they are also perceived as having poor pro-family attitude (willingness to invest time and resources in both the woman and their children) and as being dominant, aggressive, and even asocial. Men with high testosterone levels are seen to have less successful relationships with their women and children, are more likely to cheat on their partners, be single than involved in a relationship, and exhibit antisocial behavior. On the other hand, a highly masculinized male face, being a signal of physical strength and dominant, aggressive personality allows the man to successfully compete with other men, to reach a high social status, and to have better access to more and better women. Therefore, quality-dependent facial masculinity in males may have evolved initially through intrasexual selection.
Most women prefer more masculinized male faces while in the fertile phase of their menstrual cycle than the infertile phase ( i.e women prefer masculinized men for short relationship than to get marry to them)
The preference for light skin is present in most human populations. In most cultures, the preference for light skin in women is stronger than the preference for light skin in men, this would explain why natural selection favored lighter skin in women more so than in men. On the other hand, UV light is harmful (it destroys folic acid). Adults are exposed to more UV light than children are. Therefore, skin color is darker in adults. Because the biologically optimal skin color is lighter in women than men, the preference for light skin color should be stronger in men than women. The preference for skin color may therefore be conditioned by the preference for a partner with a high SES. Light skin is also a better clue to health than dark skin. Many disorders, including anemia, cyanosis, jaundice and infection, are easier to detect in an individual with light skin.
With age, facial skin becomes matt, limp, and wrinkled, the cheeks cave in and the facial bones become more conspicuous . The same traits may occur in younger individuals. Skin condition is therefore a cue to age and health, so it is hardly surprising that it affects Facial attractiveness. Many skin changes that are clearly symptomatic of disease processes (e.g., acne, eruptions, warts, moles, cysts, tumors and lesions) reduce Facial attractiveness. Some of these changes, such as inflammation and acne, are induced by relatively high levels of androgens. Therefore, these changes reduce Facial attractiveness in women more so than in men.
Men prefer female faces with smooth and slightly reddened skin. In summary, there is a preference for skin that indicates good health in females as youthfulness and low androgens levels.
Influence To Society
At conventions and trade shows, large corporations fill their space with sexy and attractive females. In one study, men who saw a new car ad that included a seductive female model rated the car as faster, more appealing, more expensive-looking, and better designed than did men who viewed the same ad without the model. Additionally, female students who are perceived to be more attractive by their professors often receive substantially higher grades than unattractive females. It is not uncommon for the store manager to assign the attractive sales rep to the young bachelor who walks in the door. Most store managers (although they won’t admit it) hire attractive salespeople to attract more customers. Research has shown that looks matter outside of advertising as well. In various studies, attractive men and women, when compared to those who were considered to be less attractive, were judged to be happier, smarter, friendlier, and more likable. They were also considered likely to have better jobs, be better marital partners, or to get more date, because of the way we view them, we want to be like them and we hope for them to like us in return.
We shouldn’t only focus on our other abilities to make us appear more attractive, but we can also increase our physical attractiveness in many different ways. Attractiveness lies in the simple things that many people overlook, like being in shape and watching your weight, picking nice clothes to wear, paying attention to your accessories (i.e. jewelry, glasses, earrings, etc.), and having well-groomed hair. Keep track of hair and clothing styles. Styles can change dramatically, and if we ignore fashion, our persuasive ability may be put in jeopardy.
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