The invention of the microscope would be one of the best medical inventory, because it opened up the world of very tiny living organism called Micro-Organisms. They are almost found everywhere in nature.
Pathogens: are disease causing Micro-Organisms.
*In air, water and soil
*On surfaces of objects and living organisms
*Within living organisms, where they are able to invade living cells
They are commonly dreaded as disease-causing agents known as Pathogens and are mainly the parasitic micro-organisms.
Types Of Micro-Organisms
* Blue-green algae
* And certain fungi
Micro-organism exist both as unicellular or multicellular. The simplest and smallest Micro-Organisms are the viruses which do not have a cell structure.
Micro-organisms are spread or transmitted by:
Spread Through Air
Pathogens micro-organisms do not grow in air. However, dust and water droplets in air contain micro-organisms. Spores produced by micro-organisms are light and easily dispersed by air movement away from their sources of production.
Spread Through Water
Until the atmosphere, aquatic environments are rich in both organic and inorganic nutrients. The various aquatic environments like wells, ponds, lakes, streams, rivers and seas. These micro-organisms are commonly known as Plankton and made up a large proportion of the total biomass of aquatic environment.
Examples are protists, which include Chlamydomonas, chlorella and certain species of Euglena.
Certain pathogens organisms are spread by drinking contaminated water. In place where sanitation and personal hygiene are poor, drinking water can easily become contaminated by such infecting the body waste. Disease like typhoid and cholera are caused mainly by water-borne pathogens.
Spread Through Food
Foods is an ideal medium in which many micro-organisms readily grow and multiple. And can enter the body through mouth, faeces and urine.
Food becomes easily contaminated through:
* Contaminated water
* Dirty utensils
* Animal vectors like flies, cockroaches and rodents
Foods like milk and iced cream are some of the most common source of infection as pathogens rapidly multiply in this foods. Micro-organisms also contamibate food that are not cooked long enough or food that are kept at temperature between 20°c to 30°c. Example of food borne organisms are cholera and dysentery.
Spread Through Direct Skin Contact
Certain Micro-Organisms are spread from one person to another by direct physical of skin contact. These disease are known as contagious disease.
Physical contact occurs in crowded places when playing games, and during activities like kissing and sexual intercourse, using the personal things of a person with a contagious diseases.
Contagious diseases usually affect of the skin and mucous membranes, leprosy, ringworm, yaws, syphilis and gonorrhoea.
Facts: One of the deadlies disease outbreak is the Ebola virus , it a contagious disease which can kill a victim within a weeks